Ogochukwu N Anaka1, Valentine U Odili2 and Stella F Usifoh2

1Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Igbinedion University Okada. 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, University of Benin, Benin City.
*Corresponding Author: Valentine U Odili,, +2348023432237.


Background: Malaria is more common in rural areas than in cities. Akhuakhuari is a very remote community with their dwelling camps sandwiched between bushes, which encourage malaria transmission. There is no known health or government educational facility in this community.

The objective of the study was to assess the level of awareness of malaria; its transmission, preventive strategies and treatment by rural community dwellers in Edo State, Nigeria.

Methods: A community-based cross–sectional questionnaire survey involving 102 study participants who gave informed consent was conducted during February and October 2013 in Akhuakhuari, village in Iyekogba, Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The questionnaire comprised 2 parts which covered the respondents’ demographics and the objectives of the study.

Results:  Most of the respondents 50 (49.0%) were secondary school certificate holders while 24 (23.5%) were illiterate. The majority of the study participants 32 (31.4%) knew that malaria is a serious disease that can attack all age groups of a population. However, only 24 (23.5%) of the study participants mentioned that mosquito bites could cause malaria. Many of the respondents (80; 78.4%) said they have insecticide-treated net (ITN). Of these, only 69 (86.3%) made use of the ITN. Eight of the 16 respondents that do not use their ITN said it is because it makes them uncomfortable.  More than half 57 (55.9%) of the participants reported that the effective treatment for malaria is the use of modern orthodox medicines. However, of the modern drugs reported, chloroquine was most frequently mentioned 18 (17.6%).

Conclusion: The incidence of malaria in the community is quite high, despite this, majority of the respondents had wrong or no knowledge about the cause, mode of transmission, prevention and treatment of malaria. The relatively high incidence of malaria in the area could be attributable to their low level of education, poverty and the unhygienic state of the environment.

Keywords: Awareness, Malaria, Rural dwellers



  1. Anumudu CI, Adepoju A, Adediran M, Adeoye O, Kassim A, Oyewole I (2006). Malaria prevention and treatment seeking behaviour of young Nigerian adults. Annals of Afr Med.  5(2): 82-88.
  2. Onwujekwe O, Chima R, Okonkwo P (2000). Economic burden of malaria illness on households versus that of all other illness episodes: a study in five malaria holo-endemic Nigerian communities. Health Policy. 54: 143-159.
  1. Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) [2005]. National Antimalarial Treatment Policy. FMOH, National malaria and Vector Control Division, Abuja, Nigeria.
  1. Jimoh A., Sofola O., Petu A., Okorosobo T (2007). Quantifying the Economic Burden of Malaria in Nigeria Using the Willingness to Pay Approach, Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 5:6 .  doi:  1186/1478-7547-5-6
  1. Olalekan MS, Nurudeen AS (2013). Malaria burden and the effectiveness of malaria control measures in Nigeria: A case study of Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 4:3, 295-308.
  1. WHO (2014). World Malaria Report. pp 16-17, 38. Available at
  1. WHO (2009). World Malaria Report. Available at
  1. Amoran OE (2013). Impact of health education intervention on malaria prevention practices among nursing mothers in rural communities in Nigeria. Niger Med J. 54(2): 115-122.
  2. Federal Ministry of Health (2009). Strategic Plan 2009-2013. “A Road Map for Malaria Control in Nigeria. Nigeria and National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). Abuja, Nigeria. Available at
  3. National Population Commission (2008). Nigeria demographic and health survey. Federal Republic of Nigeria Abuja, Nigeria.
  4. National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP), [2007]. Federal Ministry of Health. Annual report. Abuja. Nigeria
  5. Teklehaimanot A., Mejia P (2008). Malaria and Poverty. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1136: 32-37
  6. Onwujekwe O, Ojukwu J, Uzochukwu B, Dike N, Shu E (2005). Where do people from different socio-economic groups receive diagnosis and treatment for malaria in southeast Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 99(5): 473-481.
  7. Jamieson A, Toovey S, Maurel M (2006). Malaria: A Traveller’s Guide. Struik. p. 30
  8. Abdulgafar, DS (2013). The extent of achieving the millenium development goals: evidence from Nigeria. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 2(9): 59.
  9. Ndo C, Menze-DjantioB, Antonio-Nkondjio C (2011). Awareness, attitudes and prevention of malaria in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon).Parasites & Vectors.4:181
  10. Mengistu L, Wakgari D (2009). Community awareness about malaria, its treatment and mosquito vector in rural highlands of central Ethiopia. Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 23(1): 40- 47.
  11. Elsabagh S, Bennett VA, Wylie A (2010). Public awareness and prevention of malaria in Vanuatu. Public health. 124:  295 – 297
  12. Ukibe SN, Mbanugo JI, Ukibe NR Ikeakor LC (2013). Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. 5(9): 391-396.
  13. Mbanugo JI, Okorudo O (2005). Prevalence of Plasmodium infections in Pregnant women in Aguata, Anambra state, South Eastern Nigeria. J. Environ. Health. 2(2):64-68.
  14. Aribodor DN, Nwaorgu OC, Eneanya CI, Aribodor OB (2007). Malaria among Primigravid attending antenatal clinics in AwkaAnambra State, South Eastern Nigeria. Niger. J. Parasitol. 28(1):25-27.
  15. Dike N, Onwujekwe O, Ojukwu J, Ikeme A, Uzochukwu B, Shu E (2006). Influence of education and knowledge on perceptions and practices to control malaria in Southeast Nigeria. SocSci Med. 63(1):103-106.
  16. Chukwuocha UM, Dozie IN, Onwuliri CO, Ukaga CN, Nwoke BE, Nwankwo BO, Nwokeb EA, Nwaokoro JC, Nwoga KS, Uduji OG, Iwuala CC, Ohaji ET, Morankinyo OM, Adindu BC (2010). Perceptions on the use of Insecticide treated nets in parts of Imo River basin, Nigeria: implications for preventing malaria in pregnancy. Afr. J. Reprod. Health. 14(1):117-128.
  17. Wagbasoma VA, Aigbe EE (2010). ITNs Utilization among pregnant women attending ANC in Etsako West LGA, Edo state.Niger J. Clin.Pract. 13(2):144-148.
  18. Baley M, Deressa W (2008). Use of insecticide treated nets by pregnant women and associated factors in a predominantly rural population in Northern Ethiopia. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 13(1):1303-1313.
  19. Olorunfemi EA (2013). Impact of health education intervention on malaria prevention practices among nursing mothers in rural communities in Nigeria. Niger Med J. 54(2): 115–122.
  20. Adepoju EG, Onajole AT, Oreagba LO, Odeyemi KA, Ogunnowo BO, Olayemi SO (2005). Health education and caregivers’ management of malaria among under fives in Ede North L.G.A, Osun State of Nigeria. Niger Med Pract. 48:72–81.
  21. Kidane G, Morrow RH (2000). Teaching mothers to provide home treatment of malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia: A randomized trial. Lancet. 356:550–555.
  22. Oladepo O, Tona GO, Oshiname FO, and Titiloye MA (2010).Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Malar J. 9: 91.
  23. WHO (2012) Malaria Factsheet on the World Malaria Report 2012. Available at