Compatibility study of cashew and prosopis gums with some artemisinin derivatives
Emmanuel O. Olorunsola1,2*, Partap G. Bhatia3, Babajide A. Tytler2, Michael U. Adikwu4
1 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria. 2 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 4 University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author: Emmanuel O. Olorunsola ,Tel.: +2348035067306,E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Introduction: Drug – excipient compatibility study is important to pre-formulation and is carried out to ensure that there is no adverse interaction between the drug and any excipient. This study was aimed at investigating the compatibility of cashew gum (CSG) and prosopis gum (PRG) with artemether (ATM) and artesunate (ATS).
Methods: Interactions between each drug and each excipient were investigated by taking the differential scanning thermograms (DSC), the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of pure drugs, pure gums and drug/gum mixtures.
Results: The presence of cashew gum and prosopis gum had similar effects of reducing the melting point and increasing the recrystallization temperature of artemether but they had no noticeable effect on the melting point of artesunate. While cashew gum caused shifts of the peaks in the FTIR spectra of both drugs, prosopis gum caused reduction in the height of the peaks; but no new peak was formed in any of the interactions.
Conclusion: This work has shown that no new compound was formed from interactions of the two drugs with either of the two gums. Therefore, the two gums are compatible with the two artemisinin derivatives and could be investigated as delivery agents for these drugs.
Keywords: cashew gum, prosopis gum, artemether, artesunate, compatibility.
TO DOWNLOAD THE FULL TEXT: CLICK HERE
- Rosenthal PJ. (2004). Antiprotozoal drugs. In: Katzung BG, ed. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Singapore: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 864 – 885.
- Chen C. (2014). Development of antimalarial drugs and their application in China: a historical review. Inf Dis Pov. 3(9): 3-9.
- Li Y, Yu PL, Chen YX, Li LQ, Gai YZ, Wang DS and Zheng YP. (1979). Synthesis of some derivatives of artemisinin. Chin Sci Bull. 24: 667–669.
- Prothero RM. (1999). Malaria forests and people in Southeast Asia. Singapore J Trop Geo. 20(1): 76 – 85.
- Ibezim EC, Khanna M, Singh S and Uzuegbunam CE. (2006). Afzelia africana seed gum: potential binder for tablet formulations. J Phytomed Thera. 11: 38 – 48.
- Isimi CY, Kunle OO and Bangudu AB. (2000). Some emulsifying and suspending properties of the mucilage extracted from Kernels of Irvingia gabonensis. Boll Chim Farm. 139(5): 199-204.
- Lima RDN, Lima JR, Desalis CR and Moreira RA. (2002). Cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) exudates gum: A novel bioligand tool. Biotech Appl Biochem. 35: 45 – 53.
- Okoye EI, Onyekwelli AO, Ohwoavworhua FO and Kunle OO. (2009). Comparative study of some mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablets formulated with cashew tree gum, polividone and gelatin as binders. Afr J Biotechnol. 8 (16): 3970 – 3973.
- Kumar R, Patil MB, Patil SR and Paschapur MS. (2009). Evaluation of Anacardium occidentale gum as gelling agent in aceclofenac gel. Int J Pharm Tech Res. 1(3): 695 – 704.
- Attama AA, Adikwu MU and Okoli N. (2000). Studies in bioadhesive granules 1: Granules formulated with Prosopis africana gum. Chem Pharm Bull. 48(5): 734 – 737.
11. Amid BT and Mirhosseini H. (2012). Influence of chemical extraction on rheological behaviour, viscoelastic properties and functional characteristics of natural heteropolysaccharide/protein polymer from Durio zibethinus seed. Int J Mol Sci. 13(11): 14871–14888.
12. Zolfaghari R, Harden M and Huffman L. (1986). Some physical and chemical properties of honey mesquite pod (Prosopis glandulosa) and applications in food products. Cereal Chem. 63: 104-108.
- Ofori-Kwakye K, Asantewaa Y and Kipo SL. (2010). Physicochemical and binding properties of cashew tree gum in metronidazole tablet formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2 (4): 105-109.
- Adikwu M.U, Yoshikwa Y and Kanji T. (2003). Bioadhesive delivery of metformin using prosopis gum with antidiabetic potential. Biol Pharm Bull. 26(5): 662 – 666.
- Horvat M, Mestrovic E, Danilovski A and Craig DMQ. (2005). An investigation into the thermal behaviour of a model drug mixture with amorphous trehalose. Int J Pharm. 294: 1 – 10.
- Chung H, Lee E and Lim S. (2002). Comparison in glass transition and enthalpy relaxation between native and gelatinized rice starches. Carbohydrate Pol. 48: 287 – 298.
- Coutts RT. (2008). Infrared Spectroscopy. In: Chatten LG, ed. Pharmaceutical Chemistry –Instrumental Techniques. New Delhi India: CBS Publishers and Distributors PVT Ltd. 59 – 125.
- Shell JW. (2008). X-ray analysis. In: Chatten LG, ed. Pharmaceutical Chemistry – Instrumental Techniques. New Delhi India: CBS Publishers and Distributors PVT Ltd. 371 – 406.
- Builders PF, Kunle OO and Adikwu MU. (2008). Preparation and characterization of mucinated agarose : a mucin-agarose physical crosslink. Int J Pharm. 356: 174 – 180.
- Esimone CO, Omeje EO, Okoye FBC, Obonga WO AND Onah BU. (2008). Evidence for the spectroscopic determination of artesunate in dosage form. J Vector Borne Dis. 45: 281 – 286.